good discussion of the Catalan independence movement:

Transition to Democracy

How an Assassination helped turn dictatorship into democracy

General background – more recent here

pro-independence bloc forms for Sep elections, and promises to declare independence if wins

Discussion of regional elections and impact on Spain’s party system (24 May 2015) – and here and here and here – and critique of Podemos for hijacking the victory of the citizens initiatives – and here

Discussion of Spain party system (March 2015) and of the Andalusia elections (Mar 2015) for the party system; and claim that Spanish party system not that changed ; discussion of Ciudadanos; On Spanish party system after Podemos and Ciudadanos (May 2015)

INFORMAL POLL (Nov 2014): details of yes vote in informal poll: 80% yes, c. 33% turnout (although this article estimates over 40% turnout) – followed by divisions between pro-independence parties; and subsquent fallout – Mas faces prosecution; discussion pieces here and here

REFERENDUM CANCELLED (14 OCt 2014): here and here (with details of unofficial poll that will go ahead)discussion of ongoing uncertainty here and further discussion here about how the problem hasn’t gone away

Catalonia declare referendum to go ahead despite ruling that it would be illegal (March 2014) and Spanish parliament also rejects bid for referendum (April 2014) and more discussion here (May 2014) – further discussion here on what is needed to reduce pressure for Catalan independence (July 2014) – and hit by scandal (July 2014), which worsened in August – attempts to broker a deal between Rajoy and Mas fail (July 2014) and speculation that the Pujol scandal won’t impact too heavily on independence movement – more here on demonstration (12.9.14) calling for referendum and here and on attempt by Madrid to outlaw the vote; on increase in Catalan identity

referendum announced on independence (13.12.13)

update on growing Catalan independence movement (23.9.13)

academic articles

Lancaster, T.D., 2017, ‘The Spanish general elections of 2015 and 2016: a new stage in democratic politics?’ West European Politics 40(4): 919-37. Available here

Simón, Pablo (2016) The Challenges of the New Spanish Multipartism: Government Formation Failure and the 2016 General Election, South European Society and Politics, 21:4, 493-517, DOI: 10.1080/13608746.2016.1268292

Antentas, J.M., 2017, ‘Spain: from the indignados rebellion to regime crisis (2011-2016)’, Labor History. Available:

Challenges to democracy – more recent here

Discussion of regional elections and impact on Spain’s party system (24 May 2015) – and here and here and here

another new party emerges in Spanish party system – Ciudadanos (Citizens) (March 2015)

Feb 2015 polls update and here

discussion here of Podemos and polls suggesting it is now most popular party in Spain [in Spanish] and in English briefly here (Nov 2014) and more full discussion in FT here; and more here on rise of Podemos and what it means for Spain’s party system; and again

Spain’s 2-party system in disarray after EP vote (June 2014) and discussion of breakthrough of Podemos

repression of protest (April 2014)

splits within the governing centre-right party over the Catalan referendum (Jan 2014)

on funding

decline of Spanish democracy as a result of economic crisis?

academic articles:

Orriols, L. and Cordero, G., 2016, ‘The Breakdown of the Spanish Two-Party System : The Upsurge of Podemos and Ciudadanos in the 2015 General Election’ South European Society & Politics 21(4): 469-92.

Populism – updated here

Discussion of regional elections and impact on Spain’s party system (24 May 2015) – and here and here and here

Podemos co-founder resigns, claims Podemos has become too moderate (Apr 2015)

on Podemos: here, here, here ; and on implications of Syriza’s JAn 2015 victory for Podemos; Podemos rally in support of Syriza election (Jan 2015) and more on the rally here and here; and poll suggesting Podemos could win electeion here; on Podemos’s Latin American roots

on prospects for Spain’s radical right (Jan 2015)

academic articles:

Casero-Ripolles, A., Sintes-Olivella, M. and Franch, P., 2017, ‘The Populist Political Communication Style in Action: Podemos’s Issues and Functions on Twitter During the 2016 Spanish General Election’, American Behavioral Scientist. doi: 10.1177/0002764217707624

Juan Rodríguez-Teruel, Astrid Barrio & Oscar Barberà (2016) Fast and Furious: Podemos’ Quest for Power in Multi-level Spain, South European Society and Politics, 21:4, 561-585, DOI: 10.1080/13608746.2016.1250397

Antentas, J.M., 2016, ‘Podemos and the Spanish political crisis’, Labor History. Available:

Alexandros Kioupkiolis (2016) Podemos: the ambiguous promises of left-wing populism in contemporary Spain, Journal of Political Ideologies, 21:2, 99-120

Alonso, S. and Kaltwasser, C.R., 2015, ‘Spain: no country for the populist radical right?’, South European Society and Politics 20(1): 21-45.

decline of centre-left

Spanish socialists elect new leader – Pedro Sanchez (July 2014) – on why he is upbeat (Dec 2014)

on Podemos and why it shouldn’t support Catalan independence – and more here on Podemos and the Catalan question

Political participation – more recent updates here

Spain passes tough new anti-protest law (gag law) (Dec 2014) – more here – followed by raid/eviction of anarchist social centre – and day of protest against the “gag law” and another security law passed (March 2015) (and here) – and protests mark it coming into effect (July 2015)

protest against monarchy (June 2014)

repression of protest (April 2014)

protests against anti-immigration law (Feb 2014)

varieties of capitalism – more recent updates

On the nature of female employment in Spain

welfare state – more recent here

new benefits for Spanish unemployed (Dec 2014)

special issue on welfare state, austerity, and crisis in Southern Europe

Spain’s poorest hit hardest (March 2014)

academic articles:

Jordana, J. (2014), Multiple Crises and Policy Dismantling in Spain: Political Strategies and Distributive Implications. Political Studies Review, 12: 224–238.

The Comparative Politics of the Global Economic Crisis


employment increases in Spain

Spain seeks head of Eurogroup (in part to legitimate PP govt.) (June 2015)

IMF urges Spain to continue with austerity (June 2015)

return to inrease in unemployment for 2015 Q1 

current deflation need not be a problem (FT – DEc 2014)

new benefits for Spanish unemployed (Dec 2014)

housing recovery unlikely to prompt wider economic recoevery (Nov 2014) – and here house prices up for first time since crash (Feb 2015)

FT on social impact of crisis (despite recovery) (oct 2014)

recovery boosts labour market (oct 2014)

discussion of Spanish growth prospects (looking up) (Sep 2014)

special issue on welfare state, austerity, and crisis in Southern Europe

special issue on crisis in Southern Europe

Economist on Spanish unemployment (August 2014) and latest figures show 53% youth unemployment (Aug 2014)

Rajoy’s planned stimulus package (June 2014) and plan to repay bailout early (June 2014) and on moves to cut tax revenues (July 2014)

repression of protest (April 2014)

Spain to miss budget deficit target (March 2014)

report of social impact of austerity measures (March 2014)

Spain’s poorest hit hardest (March 2014)

Spain leaves European Stability Mechanism – but still has 25% unemployment  (Jan 2014)

Merkel-Zapatero spat over bailout (9.12.13)

resistance to austerity? bin strike against job losses for refuse workers (Nov 2013)

Spain emerges from 2-year recession (24.10.13)

Spain overstates debt (4.10.13)

rising unemployment

Spanish trade unions need to change in order to challenge austerity measures effectively

IMF proposal to cut Spanish wages by 10% (7.8.13)

decline of Spanish democracy as a result of economic crisis?


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